1:1 The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s.

RASHI begins by citing the Rabbinic comment that all the references to Shlomo in the Megilah refer (not only) to King Shlomo, the son of David, but also to HaShem, as the King of the Universe Who Creates Peace in the Heavens. The name “Shlomo” is related to the word “Shalom” meaning Peace, that is in fact one of the Names of HaShem, because this Song is the holiest of all the Songs that have been sung by human beings to HaShem, as explained above.

“Chazal teaches that if you put the hey in front of shlomo you have hashalem which means completed perfection … which implies the intention of this song. The opening verse defines the intention of the entire song – to reach shelemut, to reach perfection … and that purpose is reflected also in 8:10 … “then I will be like one who found peace, who found perfection”. Rav Kook Says,  “the point is to recognize from everything, the Source of everything.” That is perfection. That is unifying the physical with the spiritual – Yael Dworkin (Rosh Chodesh Nisan 5780 Women’s Learning Seminar, Orthodox Union)

1:2 “Let him kiss me with the kisses FROM his mouth, for your love is better than wine.


THE AUTHOR seems to be Solomon. Why is there such a strong female voice? Why a male-female dual voice? As we will see, there is a coordination between the two. You could say they are looking at the same thing from different perspectives. As mentioned in our background info, this is most often understood as Hashem and Israel.

The great tragedy of Shir Ha-Shirim and the great misfortune of history is the lack of synchronicity between these partners; when one is ready, the other is not. Coordinating these two partners is the ongoing challenge of the Jewish historical experience, and its lyric was viewed by Chazal as the Holy of Holies – Kodesh Ha-Kodashim


As related to the above theme (Hashem & Israel) the outward act of the kiss represents the fusion of “spirit” of man with “spirit” of G‑d, namely, the comprehension of the Torah and the knowledge of His will and wisdom. Examples:

  • Psalms 34:9 Taste and see that the Lord is good
  • Psalms 19:11 (Torah is) sweeter than honey and drippings of the honeycombs
  • “Blessed are You, Lord, our God, King of the Universe, Who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us to be involved with words of Torah. And please, Lord, our God, make the words of Your Torah pleasant in our mouths and in the mouths of all of Your people, the House of Israel…” “Birkot HaTorah: The Essence of Torah

There is an expressed desire, on the part of the woman in the story for this kiss. As we will see, their dialogue will reflect a past state, a present one, and a future one.

In the midst of the 8 chapters of Shis Hashirim, we have Problems, Chastisements, Processes and Corrections – She is not at a state of being able to fully experience this ‘kiss’.

The kiss only returns in chapter 8 at the end.

Beyond just a kiss, in this first chapter we see the Spiritual expressed as embodiment of senses: Taste, Sight, Sound, Smell, Touch. Just as physical ailments can cause issues with these, so can spiritual ailments cause us to not connect to seeing, tasting, Torah/Hashem. Keep this in mind as we read.


The kiss represents a deep connection. One where G-d ‘meets’ with us, so to speak. Such as in Torah (Shemot) where he ‘descended’ to Mt. Sinai.

His soul will spontaneously be kindled with love for G‑d, and it will clothe itself in a spirit of benevolence, willingly, to lay down and resolutely to abandon all he possesses, for it will no longer be of major importance to him, in order only to cleave unto Him and to be absorbed into His light with an attachment and longing and so forth, in a manner of “kissing” and with an attachment of spirit to Spirit.” – Tanya, chapter 49

“Why made King Solomon, who brought words of love between the upper world, Zeir Anpin, and the lower world, Malchut, and the beginning of the praise of the improvement of love that he introduced between them, “May he kiss me.” Indeed, there is love of Devekut [adhesion] of spirit to spirit only in a kiss, and a kiss on the mouth, the outlet of the spirit and its outlet. When they kiss each other, these spirits cleave to one another and become one, and then it is one love. The kiss of love spreads to the four directions, and the four directions cleave together, and they are inside the faith, Malchut. – Baal Sulam/Yehuda Ashlag

“The Zohar states that a kiss is the merging of one breath with another. Love begins with physical attraction. Then, as lovers begin communication, they begin to speak. As they get closer, they stop speaking and are merely aware of each other’s breath.  Finally, they come still closer, and their communication becomes a kiss, at which point they are actually in physical contact. At this moment, in the kiss, they are aware of each other’s life force. Kissing is thus a natural consequence of increased intimacy in speech. The two mouths come closer and closer and progress from speech, to breath, to the kiss. Thus, “There are four levels in the intimacy of love: physical attraction, speech, breath, and the kiss.
From ‘Jewish Meditation: A Practical Guide,’ Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan


As we mentioned, another dimension of kabbalistic and Chasidic study is the association of Biblical figures with different spiritual emanations and concepts. Rachel and Jacob are viewed as such with regard to the ‘coming together of the divine bride and groom.’

Here we find another interesting verse:

“And Jacob kissed Rachel and lifted up his voice and wept.”  (Gen 29:11)

For Rachel is Knesset Israel, the community of Israel, the fount of all soulsRachel represents the supernal attribute of Malchut of Atzilut, the source of all Jewish souls. (Tanya 45)

“And he wept”—in order to awaken and draw from there, from the boundless Divine Mercies, abundant compassion upon all the souls and upon the fount of the community of Israel, to raise them from their exile and to unite them in the Yichud Elyon (Higher Unity) of the light of the blessed Ein Sof, at the level of “kisses,” which is “the attachment of spirit with spirit,” as it is written, “Let Him kiss me with the kisses of His mouth. – Tanya, ch. 45


So he $64,000 question is: Why aren’t they kissing already?!

Exile = disconnect (see OU video) Why is she disconnect? (Why the exile?) For us to desire. (Arousal from below!) Connection requires tsimtsum which can be a difficult process on every level – physical, emotional etc

SEE SHAARE ORAH p49 (written and oral torah)

1:3 Because of the fragrance of your goodly oils, your name is ‘oil poured forth.’ Therefore, the maidens loved you.

First 3 verses on wine, oil, love

Oil connected to the kiss. Relationship of love, oil and wine. Oil hint to chasidus and 5th world that permeate everything. This is why we have so many interpretations to this text yet they are woven together with a common ‘desire’

“Because of …” Inferior love based on receiving. (=Bread of Shame) Nations


As we are told of the Mashiach:

He will smell of fear of the Lord; and he will not judge by the sight of his eyes and he will not decide by the hearing of his ears. But with righteousness he will judge the poor and decide with equity for the humble of the land and strike the land with the rod of his mouth and by the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. (Isaiah 11, 3-4)

Listen to this lovely story from the Zohar related to this:

Zohar 3:186a – Once, when R. Isaac and R. Judah were on a journey, they came to a place called Kfar Sachnin, where Rab Hamnuna the Elder used to live. They put up at the house of his wife. She had a young son who was still at school, and when he came from school and saw the strangers his mother said to him: Go up to these distinguished gentlemen that you may obtain a blessing from them. He began to approach, but suddenly turned back, saying to his mother: I don’t want to go near them, because they have not recited the Shema this day, and I have been taught that if one does not recite the Shema at the proper time, he is under a ban the whole of that day. When the others heard him they were amazed, and they lifted up their hands and blessed him. They said: Indeed this is so; to-day we were busy looking after an engaged couple who had no means of their own, and were therefore delaying their marriage. There was no one to provide for them, so we did so, and so omitted to say the Shema at the proper time, since if a man is engaged on one mizvah (religious precept) he is exempt from performing another (which might interfere with it). They then asked him how he knew. He replied: I knew by the smell of your clothes when I came near you.

1:4 Draw me, we will run after you; the king brought me to his chambers. We will rejoice and be glad in you. We will recall your love more fragrant than wine; they have loved you sincerely.


An odd comparison of draw me versus we will run

The direction taken by this form of divine service is elevation “from below to above,” i.e., the individual desires to leave the bounds and limitations of the world, and become one with G-d.”

There are verses on Hashem studying torah with us and the shekinah being between two or more doing such


This is a holy of holies reference – the place of ultimate connection/unification. This place is as far as you can get from the worldly desires depicted in verses ahead.


Rejoicing is limited in the exile. i.e., moedim are “appointed” times and disconnected – this sets up v. 5  See BOOK16



the time of the giving of the Torah “They beheld G-d and ate and drank” Sets up next verse on present inferior status due to lack of connection. (The verse switches from the past tense to the future, perhaps reflecting the desire for the future Redemption from our present Exile)

Chassidut explains6 that the preparations for a revelation must foreshadow the revelation itself. Since, in the era of the redemption, the revelation of G‑dliness will find expression even in the physical world, it is fitting that our preparation for these revelations be associated with physical activities such as eating and drinking.

Chambers = Holy of Holies. High priest had no other thoughts other than the connection to Hashem. We rejoice when G-d through Torah says we should (not as the nations do which is upon the temporal). 2Chronicles 20:12 – We do not know what we do. Our eyes are upon you.

BOOK p.13

Love & wine

Wine = intoxicated with Torah (Purim reference – discuss in chapter 2!)

1:5 I am dark and beautiful, O daughters of Jerusalem! Like the tents of Kedar, like the curtains of Solomon.

1:6 Do not look upon me [disdainfully] because I am swarthy, for the sun has gazed upon me; my mother’s sons were incensed against me; they made me a keeper of the vineyards; my own vineyard I did not keep.

“So far, so good”.  We’ve seen aspects of connection and desire. Now we come to a concern.

Here we see aspects of the four states of decline mentioned in the Intro:

  1. Concealment – She is searching for him (the gazelle who runs and hides)
  2. Domination by other Nations – working the other vineyards
  3. Exile of the Shekinah –
  4. Y’Israel’s afflictions


How can she be BOTH dark and light? P13

55/57 = black THUS beautifull!!  See how G-d judges during exile and ho everything is connected

Interesting is that the root of the word Qadar (‘black’) is to darken or to mourn. You get a sense of both here.

God’s Standard of judgment is harsh BOOK p45-47 (moses, aaron’s sons) but also fair when in exile

Midrash Rabbah Shir Hashirim 1:37 Are we to say that just as the tents of Kedar cannot be cleaned,1 so Israel also? Not so, because it says, AS THE CURTAINS OF SOLOMON: just as a curtain after becoming dirty can be washed, and can again become dirty and be washed, so although Israel are defiled with sin all the rest of the year, yet the Day of Atonement comes and makes atonement for them, as it says,  For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you (Lev. XVI, 30), and it is written, Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow (Isa. I, 10).

SEE BOOK p. 26,28


New …

Midrash Rabbah – The Song of Songs 1:41 – MY MOTHER’S SONS, the sons of my nation, namely the spies, WERE INCENSED AGAINST ME: they attacked me, they filled the Judge with wrath against me. THEY MADE ME KEEPER OF THE VINEYARDS: because I stayed in the wilderness journeying forty-two stages, I was not able to enter the land of Israel. Hence, MY OWN VINEYARD I DID NOT KEEP.

(The 42 returns in chapter 3)

This is stated an unnatural and temporary condition. The lack of connection causes her (Israel) to serve in an inferior way. In the future Israel will be the light to the world – we are seeing a precursor now with gentiles learning from Jewish sources via the internet.

SEE BOOK p.39,54,

YET, there is always a purpose to what G-d does (Ein Od Milvado) including obstacles and situations. (Even if she/Israel falter.) In the end, everything comes together according to Hashem’s will and desire.

Good and bad in the same place – all part of process. They are TOGETHER from Hashem’s perspective:

Midrash Rabbah Shir Hashirim 1:34 – I was black in Egypt and yet comely in Egypt. I was black in Egypt, as it says, But they rebelled against Me and would not hearken unto Me  (Ezek. XX, 8). And I was comely in Egypt, with the blood of the Passover and the blood of circumcision, as it is written, And when I passed by thee, and saw thee wallowing in thy blood, I said unto thee: In thy blood live-this is the blood of the Passover–and I said unto thee, in thy blood live  (Ezek. XVI,6)-this is the blood of circumcision. Another explanation: I was black by the Red Sea, as it says,  They were rebellious at the sea, even the Red Sea (Ps. CVI, 7), and I was comely at the Red Sea, as it says,  This is my God, and I will be comely for Him4 (Ex. XV, 2). I was black at Marah, as it says,  And the people murmured against Moses, saying: What shall we drink (ib. 24), and I was comely at Marah, as it says,  And he cried unto the Lord, and the Lord showed him a tree and he cast it into the waters and the waters were made sweet (ib. 25).5 I was black at Rephidim, as it says, And the name of the place was called Massah and Meribah (ib. XVII, 7), and I was comely at Rephidim, as it says,  And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Adonai-nissi2 (ib. 15). I was black at Horeb, as it says,  They made a calf in Horeb  (Ps. CVI, 19), and I was comely at Horeb, as it says,  And they said:,All that the Lord hath spoken will we do, and obey (Ex. XXIV, 7). I was black in the wilderness, as it says,  How oft did they rebel against Him in the wilderness (Ps. LXXVIII, 40), comely in the wilderness at the setting-up of the Tabernacle, as it says,  And on the day that the Tabernacle was reared up, etc. (Num. IX, 15). I was black in the action of the spies, as it says,  And they spread an evil report of the land (ib. XIII, 32), and I was comely in the action of Joshua and Caleb, as it says,  Save Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite, etc. (ib. XXXII 2). I was black at Shittim, as it says,  And Israel abode in Shittim and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab (ib. XXV, 1), and I was comely in Shittim, as it says,  Then stood up Phinehas and wrought judgment (Ps. CVI, 30). I was black through Achan, as it says,  But the children of Israel committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing  (Josh. VII, 1), and I was comely through Joshua, as it says,  And Joshua said unto Achan: My son, give, I pray thee, glory (ib. 19). I was black through the kings of Israel and comely through the kings of Judah. If even with my black ones3 I was so comely, how much more so with my prophets!4

SEE BOOK p.40,44


See Kramer 227 for messiah and keter/atik

Zohar 1:238a,b – BINDING HIS FOAL UNTO THE VINE (Genesis 49:11). The vine is the Community of Israel, so called also in the verse: “Thou didst remove a vine from Egypt” (Psalm 80:9). By “his foal” is meant the Messiah, who is destined to rule over all the hosts of the peoples, that is to say, the heavenly hosts who have charge of the Gentiles, and from whom they derive their strength. The Messiah will prevail over them, because this vine dominates all those lower crowns through which the Gentiles have dominion. This will be the victory above. Israel, who are “a choice vine”, will conquer and destroy other hosts below; and the Messiah will prevail over all … The vine represented the Community of Israel, which was called by the psalmist “this vine” (Psalm 80:15). The three branches have the same reference as the three flocks of sheep which Jacob saw by the well. (Genesis 29:2). Its blossoming typifies the time of Solomon, when the moon was illumined. The buds represent the lower Jerusalem, or, according to another explanation, the grade which is over it and gives sustenance to it … Simeon said: “There are two kinds of vine. There is the holy celestial vine, and there is the vine which is called “the vine of Sodom, the strange vine”; and therefore Israel is called “this vine”. And when Israel sinned and abandoned “this vine”, then it was said of them: “For from the vine of Sodom is their vine” (Deuteronomy 33:32).


see share orah p. 31,22,19 on Malkhut having to draw from something!



Zohar 3:46a – WHEN A MAN SHALL HAVE IN THE SKIN OF HIS FLESH A RISING OR A SCAB OR A BRIGHT SPOT, ETC. R.Judah here cited the verse: “Look not upon me because I am swarthy, because the sun hath scorched me”, etc. (S.S. 1, 6). ‘When the Moon was hidden in the exile and she saw the yearning of Israel for her, she said, “Look not on me”, meaning, “You cannot see me, because I am in darkness-for one thing because the sun has withdrawn his light from me, and for another because “the sons of my mother were incensed against me” (Ibid.), these being the emissaries of the side of severity. “They made me keeper of the vineyards”, that is, of other nations, whereas “my own vineyard”-Israel-I cannot keep. Formerly I kept my own vineyard and through it the others were also kept; now I have to keep the others that my own may be kept among them.’ As R. Hiya and R. Jose were once going along, they came to a field where there was a balsam tree on the right. Said R. Jose: ‘A pall of smoke must come before our eyes; it is forbidden us to look upon any glad sight since the day when the Temple was destroyed.’ He then expounded the verse: “The earth is the Lord’s and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Ps. XXIV, 1). ‘This “earth” ‘, he said, ‘is the holy earth which is called “the land of the living”, while “the world” refers to other lands.’ R. Hiya said: ‘The “earth” is as you said; the “fulness thereof” is the souls of the righteous; the “world” is this earth, and “they that dwell therein” are mankind.’ Said R. Jose: ‘If so, what do you make of the next verse: “For he hath founded it upon the seas and established it upon the waters”?’ He replied: ‘Assuredly that “land of the living” is established upon the seas and rivers which issue from that supernal River that proceeds from Eden.’

See book p41 – the blackness is part of the same mission! – this ties to awaken not love …

Berachot 5a – The Holy One, blessed be He, gave Israel three precious gifts, and all of them were given only through sufferings. These are: The Torah, the Land of Israel and the world to come. Whence do we know this of the Torah? — Because it is said: Happy is the man whom Thou chastenest, o Lord, and teachest him out of Thy law.34 Whence of the Land of Israel? — Because it is written: As a man chasteneth his son, so the Lord thy God chasteneth thee,35 and after that it is written: For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land.36 Whence of the world to come? — Because it is written: For the commandment is a lamp, and the teaching is light, and reproofs of sufferings are the way of life.

Shemot Rabbah 49:2 – Another explanation of EVERY WISE – HEARTED MAN. It is written, I am black, but comely (S.S. I, 5). If ’black’, then how ’comely’? Can one be both black and comely? No, but this is what the Community of Israel said: ‘”I am black” in my own deeds, “but comely” with the deeds of my ancestors; I was black in Egypt,4 ” but comely ” when I said at Sinai: ” All that the Lord hath spoken will we do, and obey” ’ (Ex. XXIV, 7). ‘ I was black’ at the Red Sea, as it says, But were rebellious at the sea, even at the Red Sea (Ps. CVI, 7)5; but ‘ I am comely’ because I said: ’ This is my God, and I will glorify Him’ (Ex. XV, 2). ‘I am black’ on account of having made the Golden Calf, ’but comely’ because I made the Tabernacle. ‘I am black’ because of the ox, as it says, Thus they exchanged their glory for the likeness of an ox that eateth grass  (Ps. CVI, 20), but ‘I am comely’ on account of another kind of ox, namely, What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, etc. (Lev. XVII, 3).1 ‘I am black’ on account of the Tabernacle, because it says, They have defiled My sanctuary  (Ezek. XXIII, 38), yet ‘ I am comely’ on account of His Tabernacle for it says, AND EVERY WISE-HEARTED MAN AMONG THEM THAT WROUGHT THE WORK MADE THE TABERNACLE. What was the work which they wrought? If you would know, see what is written: And this is the offering which ye shall take of them, etc. (Ex. XXV, 3). This refers to the Community of Israel which is called ‘an offering’, for it says, Israel is the Lord’s hallowed portion, His first-fruits of the increase (Jer. II, 3). ’Gold, and silver’ also refers to Israel, as it says, The wings of the dove are covered with silver, and her pinions with the shimmer of gold (Ps. LXVIII, 14). ’And brass’-this refers to Eretz Israel, for it says, A land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills, thou mayest dig brass  (Deut. VIII, 9). ’And blue’-this applies to Israel, because it says, And that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue (Num. XV, 38). ’And purple, and scarlet’-this also applies to Israel, because it says, Fear not, thou worm2 Jacob  (Isa. XLI, 14), and also Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet  (S.S IV, 3), and The princes of Judah their purple  (Ps. LXVIII, 28).3 Another explanation of ’gold’ is that it refers to Abraham who was tried in the fiery furnace like gold; ’And silver’ refers to Isaac, who was refined like silver on the altar; ’And brass’-this is Jacob, of whom it says, I have observed the signs,4 and the Lord hath blessed me for thy sake (Gen. XXX, 27)

See book .43 – compare to sin leading to a stronger bond – (required for the kiss!)

1/7 Tell me, you whom my soul loves, where do you feed, where do you rest [the flocks] at noon, for why should I be like one who veils herself beside the flocks of your companions?”

1:8 “If you do not know, O fairest of women, go your way in the footsteps of the flocks and pasture your kids beside the shepherds’ dwellings.

Verses 7 and 8 are a sharp transition. She appeals to him as to where to go, and his response is implying she should know … (Hint of sarcasm? Or perhaps ‘Tough love!’)  Modern vernacular: “Seriously??”

Proverbs 3:12 – For those who G-d loves, He chastises

This is the response of HaShem to the People of Israel asking for direction – where to go and what to do, in the darkness of the Exile.

RASHI: “If you do not know, My assembly and My congregation, O fairest of women, among the other nations, where you should pasture and be saved from the hands of those who oppress you; if you wish to survive among them and not have your children lost, then reflect upon the ways of your early forefathers. They accepted My Torah and observed My ordinances and My commandments, and followed in My ways.”

The end of the matter, everything having been heard, fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the entire man. Ecclesiastes 12:13

1/9 “To a horse of the Pharo’s chariot, I have likened you, my beloved”

Beginning of a mild ‘rebuke/reminder’

Allusion to Egypt/Sinai. He then goes on to praise his beloved’s beauty. The horses of Egypt represented a forbidden treasure! The horses of Pharo are another pitfall that a king is enjoined to avoid. Another approach is that Pharo’s horses are obedient to Egypt.  Ultimately they drown in the waves of the sea.

1/10 Your cheeks are comely with rows, your neck with necklaces

1/11 We will make you rows of gold with studs of silver.”

RASHI: “The Assembly of Israel replies and says, ‘All this is true; You bestowed goodness upon me, and I repaid You with evil, for while the King was still at the table of His wedding feast (that is, at Sinai

1/12 “While the king was still at his table, my spikenard gave forth its fragrance.


Allusion to Sinai. Follows up on the previous three verses of reminder

Exodus 24;11: And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He did not lay His hand, and they perceived God, and they ate and drank


Negative connotation ‘RAY-akh” See Exodus 5:21 (made us a stink to pharaoh) and Jeremiah 48:11 (Moab)

RASHI: ‘…its fragrance left and turned to stench, because while the Divine Presence was still at Sinai, I sinned with the Golden Calf.’ But Scripture wrote an expression of affection, ‘gave forth its fragrance,’ and it did not write ‘stank’ or ‘became putrid’ since Scripture speaks in refined language.”

Even so … the old spice (nard) will be replaced with myhrr … (through G-d’s forgiveness):

1:13 A bundle of myrrh is my beloved to me; between my breasts he shall lie.

1:14 A cluster of henna-flowers is my beloved to me, in the vineyards of Ein-Gedi.

1:15 “Behold, you are comely, my beloved; behold, you are comely; your eyes are like doves

A ‘limited’ acceptance of the rebuke but beginning of unification

Shir Hashirim Rabbah 1:11 –  In all other songs either God praises Israel or they praise Him. In the Song of Moses [at the Red Sea] they praise Him, saying, This is my God, and I will glorify Him (Ex. XV, 2). In the Song of Moses [before his death] He praises them, as we read, He made him ride on the high places of the earth  (Deut. XXXII, 13). Here, however, they praise Him and He praises them. He praises them: Behold thou art beautiful, my beloved (I, 16), and they praise Him: Behold thou art beautiful, my beloved, verily pleasant (I, 17)

RASHI: “I (Israel) was ashamed of my misdeeds, and He strengthened me with words of appeasement, saying (BaMidbar 14:20), ‘I have forgiven, according to your words.’ And behold you are most fair, for your eyes are like doves… And this is the allegory:…”

1:16  “Behold, you are comely, my beloved, yea pleasant; also our couch is leafy.

Equivalency to the temple.

SHIR HASHIRIM 1:68 – ALSO OUR COUCH IS LEAFY. This refers tothe Temple, as it says, With his nurse in the bed-chamber (II Kings XI, 2).

Through your pleasantness, behold our couch is leafy with our sons and with our daughters, all of whom gather to You here, as it is said (ibid. 8: 4): “and the congregation gathered [to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting].” The Tabernacle is called a bed, as it is said (below 3: 7): “Behold, the litter of Solomon,” and the Temple is called a bed, as it is said concerning Joash “in the bed chamber” which was in the “House of the Lord” (ibid. 3), because they [the Sanctuaries] are the source of Israel’s fruitfulness and procreation.(Chabad)


The “couch” is an allusion to the Shekinah, and “Solomon” refers to the “King to whom peace (shalom) belongs”: “threescore mighty men are about it”-these are the sixty myriads of exalted angels, part of the army of the Shekinah which accompanied Jacob into Egypt.’
Zohar, Shemoth 5a


“AND ISRAEL BOWED HIMSELF DOWN UPON THE BED’S HEAD. The bed stands for the Shekinah, as in the verse, “Behold, it is the litter of Solomon” (Song of Songs 3:7). The “head of the bed” is the Foundation of the World who is the head of the sacred couch; and “that which is upon the head” is (the supernal) Israel who is established at the head of the bed.
Zohar, Bereshith 225b


1:17 The beams of our houses are cedars; our corridors are cypresses.”

Chaigah 16a – Who testifies against me? The stones of a man’s home and the beams of his house testify against him, for it is said: For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it.

MASCULINE AND FEMININE TOGETHER (KETER) RELATING TO 1:6 (move this to 1:17 temple reference?)

Zohar 2:4a – R. Eleazar and R. Jose were once walking together. Said R. Eleazar to R. Jose: ‘Open thy mouth,.and let thy words flow forth!’ R. Jose replied: ‘Will it please the master if I ask him to solve a certain difficulty for me? I have heard from the mouth of the “holy lamp” (R. Simeon b. Yohai) this interpretation of the words: “and these are the names of the children of Israel”-that they refer to the “Ancient Israel” (God)and to all the heavenly hosts and chariots who went into captivity with Jacob. I am, however, puzzled how to fit the words “a man and his household” in this verse into this interpretation.’ R. Eleazar replied: ‘What R. Simeon said is certainly correct. We have an esoteric doctrine that the receiver is, as it were, a “house” to the giver. This may be illustrated from the following verse: “And it came to pass when Solomon had finished the building of the house of the Lord and the king’s house” (I K. IX, I). “The house of the Lord” is, of course, the Temple, which includes the outer courts, the porch, the antechambers, and the Temple itself: but the “king’s house” is not, as you might think, the palace of Solomon, but the Holy of Holies, the innermost sanctum, the word “King” being here used in its absolute sense. For this King, although supreme, is, in relation to the Highest Point, the most hidden One, feminine, or receptive; but at the same time He is masculine, or active, in relation to the lower King; and this double relationship, to that which is above and that which is below, appertains to the whole supramundane world. It is in this symbolic sense that the angels are here called “his house”.’ AND THESE ARE THE NAMES. R. Jose connected these words with the words from the Song of Songs (IV, I2): “A closed garden is my sister bride, a closed spring, a sealed fountain.” ‘ “A closed garden” refers to the Community of Israel, for,’ said R. Eleazar, ‘as the garden has to be tended, ploughed, watered, and trimmed, so has the Community of Israel to be tended, nurtured, and trimmed. She is called “garden” and she is called “vineyard”: “for the vineyard of the Lord of Hosts is Israel… and he fenced it and gathered out the stones thereof” (Isa. v, I-7).’


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